|My age:||I'm just over sixty|
|Tint of my iris:||Lustrous green|
|What is my gender:||Female|
|What is the color of my hair:||Black|
|What is my hobbies:||Travelling|
The spanish version of the sexual opinion survey (sos-6): evidence of validity of a short version
All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is d under a Creative Commons Attribution. Services on Demand Journal. Sex determination in Turdus amaurochalinus Passeriformes: Muscicapidae : morphometrical analysis supported by CHD gene. Abstract Sex determination is important for conservation and population studies, particularly for reproduction programs of threatened species and behavioural ecology.
Turdus amaurochalinusCreamy-bellied Thrush, only exhibits sexual dimorphism during the breeding season, when males are considered to show intense yellow bills, and females and immature males show dark brown bills. The objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the sex of individuals using genetic techniques, and 2 to test the hypothesis that sex dimorphism can be detected by morphometry. The birds were captured using ornithological nets, singly marked with metal rings, weighed, measured and had blood samples collected before being released.
The sex of 42 T. A total of 20 males and 22 females were identified from June to August, with peak capture frequency in June.
Turdus amaurochalinus females and males differed ificantly in morphometrical measures. The molecular analysis was the most secure method for sex determination in the studied species.
Epub June Turdus amaurochalinu s no presenta aparente dimorfismo sexual. In the case of Turdus amaurochalinusit is difficult to differentiate young males from adult females. Sex is one of the most important variables to distinguish individuals in a population.
Techniques for sex determination in birds include laparoscopy, karyotyping Basrur et al. The CHD gene has been used successfully in many bird species Griffiths et al.
Materials and methods
The W chromosome is special for the female, and the determination of the sex is made based on the absence or presenceof the marker W-linked. Using polymerase chain reaction PCR techniques, it is possible to easily identify the females, since they show two bands on agarose gel. The CHD gene was successfully used for sex determination in the White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis Vieillot,not apparently sexually dimorphic in the adult phase.
For this species, males and females differed in morphometric characteristics such as wing length and body mass, which were ificantly bigger in males Ritter et al. For this reason, we would expect to find distinct morphological characteristics between sexes in the con-generic species, Creamy-bellied Thrush T. The present study aims to determine the sex proportion of T. The region is dominated by a large lake of fresh water Lagoa Feia and by a sandy quaternary plain, which stretches towards the continent, advancing from the sea to the interior approximately 2km, where the seasonally flooded forest begins to appear.
There is accented seasonality, with maximum rainfall in the summer approximately mm and minimum in the winter around 40mm.
The mean annual temperature was Data collection at field : Birds were captured wice a month from to in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park Alves et al. Each month 10 nets were set up in open Clusia scrub and 10 nets in Forest Formation seasonally flooded forestwith two consecutive days in each area for each excursion 20 nets total per sample period.
Nets were exposed for 7 hours of sampling each day, with half of this period in the morning h and half in the afternoon h. Captured birds were placed individually in clean cotton bags, and were marked separately with metal and coloured rings. Shortly after capture, we recorded the following measurements: total length, wing length, length of the tail, tarsus length, exposed culmen, nostril-tip, opening-bill base, bill height in the nostril and in the base, bill width in the nostril and in the base, and length of the head to the bill tip Sick The morphometrical data were always taken by the same researcher one of the authors, M.
Alves to avoid bias.
We collected approximately ml of blood from the tarsal vein using a disposable needle 13x4. Blood was immediately transferred to 1.
Initially, the CHD gene sex determination technique was tested for several bird species, including T. Some individuals of T. The result proved that the protocol developed for this technique is secure, since R. Only data collected from T. Discriminant Analysis includes only the variables with observations for all forty individuals: body mass, total length, wing length, length of the tail, tarsus length, exposed culmen and length of the head to the bill tip.
Sexual reason and morphometric analyses : We categorized 42 20 males and 22 females T. Males presented longer wing length than females, while females appeared heavier than males Fig. Received IV Corrected X Accepted XI Universidad de Costa Rica.
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